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The majority of all bladder cancers are urothelial carcinoma which are further subdivided into two types: tumours of non-invasive, papillary growth and those of muscle-invasive growth. At the time of first diagnosis, most bladder tumours tend to be non-invasive
As lung cancer often originates from the bronchi it is also known as bronchial carcinoma. There is a distinction between the small-cell and non-small cell type; for both, tobacco smoke is considered the main risk factor.
Mammary carcinoma is the technical term for breast cancer and is used to describe a malignant tumour in the mammary gland. Today, screening programmes ensure a good prognosis for this diagnosis which affects women in the majority of cases.
If cancer develops in the female ovaries, this is called ovarian cancer. In most cases, the tumour is located in the tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries; this form of cancer is also called an epithelial tumour.
Melanoma develops from the pigment-containing cells of the skin known as melanocytes. Skin-cancer rates have been rising steadily over the past few decades. People with a family history and/or a lighter skin type are affected more commonly.